Opened in 1956 in Anderson Township with grades 7-12, the first graduating class from Madison Heights High School was in 1957. The school mascot and colors were chosen by the students. Madison Heights joined the Anderson School System in 1964.
Madison Heights was successful in both athletic and scholastic competitions. The boy's basketball teams won several Sectional Championships while the girl's team made it all the way to the State Finals in 1979. Both the golf and cross country teams won State Championships. The chess team won the State Championship three years in a row between 1994 and 1996. The marching Band of Pirates won many competitions, including the prestigious State Fair Band Day where they were 1st in 1963 and 1980.
In 1997, the Anderson Community School Corporation determined that the old Anderson High School building was not in adequate condition to continue classes. It was decided that that building would close and the Madison Heights High School would be renamed Anderson High School. While some of the Madison Heights students moved to Highland High School, most remained in the new Anderson High School.